The map shows the location of excess sample materials from the G-BASE (Geochemical Baseline Survey Of The Environment) geochemistry project:- stream sediments, panned heavy mineral concentrates and soils are stored long term in the National Geoscience Data Centre and are available for use in other projects. The Minerals Programme (incorporating the Mineral Reconnaissance Programme) sample collection contains reference samples of drill cores, rocks, tills, soils, stream sediments and panned concentrates. These samples were collected in the period 1974 - to date in mineralised and potentially mineralised areas of the United Kingdom, principally in the northern and western Britain.
Profile soil analyses are available from a number of BGS programmes, notably the Mineral Reconnaissance Programme (MRP) and the Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment (G-BASE) programme. Sampling depth and range of analytes determined is very variable for the MRP. G-BASE samples are consistently from 35 - 50 cm though since 2003 it has become routine practice in the G-BASE project to collect a top soil and deeper profile sample from the same site but only analyses the top soil and store the profile soil. This also applies in urban areas. The G-BASE profile soils were generally sieved to 150 microns before analysis and determined by XRFS for some or all of: Mg, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, V, Cr, Co, Ba, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pb, Bi, Th, U, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Ge, Sc, Se, Br, Hf, Ta, W, Tl, Te and I. MRP samples can include profile samples from greater than 1 meter collected using a power auger and also include till samples. The G-BASE samples are collected at a density of 1 sample per two square kilometres in rural areas and 4 samples every kilometre square in urban areas. MRP sampling was more site specific generally collecting soil samples along lines at spacing intervals generally 25 - 250 m.
The map shows the localities where samples that form part of the BGS rock collections have been taken. Many of these samples are from surface exposure, and were collected by BGS geologists during the course of geological mapping programmes. Others are from onshore boreholes or from mine and quarry workings. The principal collections are the E (England and Wales), S (Scotland), N (continuation of the S collection) and the MR (miscellaneous). The collections, which are held at the BGS offices at Keyworth (Nottingham) and Edinburgh, comprise both hand specimens and thin sections, although in individual samples either may not be immediately available. Users may also note that the BGS holds major collections of borehole cores and hand specimens as well as over a million palaeontological samples. The Britrocks database provides an index to these collections. With over 120,000 records, it now holds data for some 70% of the entire collections, including the UK samples shown in this application as well as rocks from overseas locations and reference minerals. The collections are continuously being added to and sample records from archived registers are also being copied into the electronic database. Map coverage is thin in some areas where copying from original paper registers has not been completed. Further information on Britrocks samples in these and other areas can be obtained from the Chief Curator at the BGS Keyworth (Nottingham) office or from the rock curator at the BGS Murchison House (Edinburgh) office.
The Marine Hard Substrate dataset maps areas of rock or hard substrate outcropping or within 0.5m of the sea-bed. The interpretation was based on a variety of data sourced from within the British Geological Survey and externally. Data consulted includes archive sample and seismic records, side scan sonar, multibeam bathymetry and Olex datasets. The distribution of hard substrate at the seabed, or within 0.5 m is important in dictating the benthic assemblages found in certain areas. Therefore, an understanding of the distribution of these substrates is of primary importance in marine planning and designation of Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs) under the Marine and Coastal Access Act, 2009. In addition, a number of other users will value these data, including marine renewable companies, aggregate companies, the fishing and oil and gas industries. In order to address this issue it was necessary to update British Geological Survey sea-bed mapping to delineate areas where rock, boulders or cobbles are present at, or within 0.5m of the sea-bed surface. A polygon shape file showing areas of rock or hard substrate at, or within 0.5m of the sea-bed has been developed. The dataset has been created as vector polygons and are available in a range of GIS formats, including ArcGIS (.shp), ArcInfo Coverages and MapInfo (.tab). More specialised formats may be available but may incur additional processing costs.
The purpose of this digital dataset is to provide accurate mapping of the distribution of sea-bed sediment types. Sea-bed sediments can only be mapped offshore, where the most recent deposits commonly form a veneer or superficial layer of unconsolidated material on the sea-bed. The dataset is produced for use at 1:250,000 scale. The boundaries between sediment classifications or types are delineated using sample station particle size analyses and descriptions, seafloor topography derived from shallow geophysical data and where available multibeam bathymetry and backscatter and side scan sonar profiles. The sediment types present on the sea-bed are of importance to a range of groups, including marine habitat mappers, marine spatial planners, the offshore construction and development sector, and the dredging and aggregate industries. These groups require detailed information on the nature of the sea-bed, including the sediment types present. The DiGSBS250k dataset has been created as vector polygons and are available in a range of GIS formats, including ArcGIS (.shp), ArcInfo Coverages and MapInfo (.tab). More specialised formats may be available but may incur additional processing costs.
Data identifying landscape areas (shown as polygons) attributed with geological names. The scale of the data is 1:250 000 scale providing a generalised geology. Onshore coverage is provided for all of England, Wales, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Data are supplied as two themes: bedrock and linear features (faults), there is no superficial, mass movement or artificial theme available onshore at this scale. Bedrock geology describes the main mass of solid rocks forming the earth's crust. Bedrock is present everywhere, whether exposed at surface in outcrops or concealed beneath superficial deposits or water bodies. Geological names are based on the lithostratigraphic or lithodemic hierarchy. This means rock bodies are arranged into units based on rock-type and geological time of formation. Where rock-types do not fit into the lithostratigraphic scheme, for example intrusive, deformed rocks subjected to heat and pressure resulting in new or changed rock types; then their classification is based on their rock-type or lithological composition. This assesses visible features such as texture, structure, mineralogy. Data identifying linear features (shown as polylines) represent geological faults at the ground or bedrock surface (beneath superficial deposits). Geological faults occur where a body of bedrock has been fractured and displaced by large scale processes affecting the earth's crust (tectonic forces). The faults theme defines geological faults (shown as polylines) at the ground or bedrock surface (beneath superficial deposits). The data are available in vector format (containing the geometry of each feature linked to a database record describing their attributes) as ESRI shapefiles and are available under BGS data licence.
This layer of the Map based index (GeoIndex) shows where water wells exist with data available on transmissivity, storativity and discharge/drawdown. These parameters indicate the physical characteristics of the aquifer which can relate to factors such as possible storage capacities or rate of movement of water through the rock.
This layer of the map based index (GeoIndex) shows sites where regularly monitored rest water level data are available, usually covering a long time period. The data shows seasonal fluctuations in the water table and responses to periods of high or low rainfall.
This layer of the map based index (GeoIndex) is a map based index of the National Well Record Archive. This index shows the location of water wells along with basic information such as well name, depth and date of drilling. The index is based on the collection of over 105,000 paper records of water wells, springs and water boreholes. Geological information, construction details, water quality data and hydrogeological data may also be available for some water wells. The amount of detail held on individual sites varies widely and certain fields will have an 'unknown' value where the paper records have yet to be checked for their content. The zero values for the depth represent those for which the depth has yet to be entered into the database from the paper records.
Water samples have predominantly been collected by the G-BASE (Geochemical Baseline Survey of the Environment) project at an average sampling density of one sample per 1.5 km square. Samples have been collected from approximately 85% of Great Britain but it is only from Wales and Humber-Trent southwards that a wide range of analytes have been determined. Currently G-BASE stream water samples collected from high order streams are determined by ICP-AES for 27 elements - Sr, Cd, Ba, Si, Mn, Fe, P, S (as SO42-), B, Mg, V, Na, Mo, Al, Be, Ca, Zn, Cu, Pb, Li, Zr, Co, Ni, Y, La, K and Cr; and by quadrupole ICP-MS for 24 trace elements - Li, Be, Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Y, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Tl, Pb, Th and U. Automated colorimetric methods are used to determine Cl and NO3- and ion selective electrode is used to determine F. Waters are also analysed for non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC) to determine dissolved organic carbon content. All samples have routinely been analysed for pH, conductivity and bicarbonate. Much of the UK coverage also includes uranium and fluoride analyses.